The surveyor's bearing and distance values, known as "survey pairs", found in the record of new roads, often use a notation and units not familiar to us 21 st century folks.
To acquaint you with the style of compass bearings and units of distance measure, the following explanations and interactive calculators are offered. The compass bearings found in town roadway surveys often use a format consisting of a letter followed by a numeric value followed by another letter.
The format looks like this:. The first portion being the letter 'N' or 'S'. The second portion is an angle between 0 and 90 degrees. The third and final portion is the letter 'E' or 'W'.
Here is an interactive calculator. Select North or South, East or West, and enter a numeric angle. It will convert that surveyor bearing to a numeric compass angle. Related to the topic of compass bearings is that of angles on a mathematician's Cartesian Coordinate System.
For each, angles range from 0 to degrees to describe the full circle, they are laid out quite differently. First, angles used to measure bearings on a compass or a map begin with 0 degrees assigned to North, then proceed clockwise with East being 90 degrees, South is degrees, and West is degrees.
Angles on a Cartesian Coordinate System, however, begin with 0 degrees to the right, and proceed counterclockwise with 90 degrees up, degrees to the left, and finally degrees downward. As you can see, the two measurement systems differ in both the starting point - corresponding to 0 degrees, as well as the direction of increasing magnitude. Though converting angles from one system to the other may appear tricky, there is a very simple and elegant solution.
By entering an angle as Angle 1 in the following equation, the result, Angle 2is the equivalent angle in the other measurement system. The amazing elegance comes as this equation works by converting angles in either direction - with no modification! Following are some tools useful in Microsoft Excel workbooks for making the bearing and distance conversions.
First is a Visual Basic for Excel macro. Enter it into a macro sheet. Then on a worksheet cell, refer to this macro and three worksheet cells or constants containing the "NS", angle, and "EW" information. Second is a simple Excel formula for converting a distance in chains, rods, and links to feet. Compass Bearings The compass bearings found in town roadway surveys often use a format consisting of a letter followed by a numeric value followed by another letter.
The format looks like this: [NS]dd. Here are a few examples. N15E Starting at North, turn 15 degrees toward the East.
Items 1 - 50 of A slightly loose shaft fit is desirable for most applications. For linkages and rod ends, shafts are not typically used but it refers to the measurement of the bore ID whether you are using a bolt or screw through the inside diameter of your rod end.
See image below. This bearing type is a plain spherical bearing offered in different material options including sintered bronze, sintered iron, molded nylon, chrome plated steel and cast iron. Each of these bearings have a specific benefit per application.
Learn more about each in the Bearing material info icon. This bearing type has a stamped steel housing around a bronze bushing. Benefits of this type include self-alignment, high load-spread capability, constant lubrication on the shaft and is a low-cost solution. You also have the option of many different lubrication apparatus and type options.
Please see info icon for Lubrication apparatus or type of lubricant for more information. This results in a quiet operation, longer-life span and reduces the amount of dirt and dust that can get caught between the bore and shaft. You can find bronze bearings in many applications including lawn mowers, solar panels, food machinery and lawn tractor attachments. Iron bearings have similar benefits as our bronze bearings and they are oil impregnated with SAENon-Detergent oil as well.
Having an oil-impregnated bearing allows for a longer-life span and quiet operation. Sintered iron bearings are best suited for a low load. Common applications include lawn tractors, solar trackers, lawn and garden equipment, packaging machinery and more. Plastic nylon bearings are able to endure extreme temperatures, heavy loads and high speeds. They have a high wear resistance and can reduce costs.
The main benefit of plastic bearings is that they are suitable for wash-down and sterile applications and are resistant to both salt water and harsh chemicals. Water can act as a lubricant for plastic bearings, which is a huge advantage as most bearings are unable to function, let alone excel in a damp or wet environment. Common applications include food production equipment and machinery, health care equipment and lawn and garden equipment.
Cast iron bearings are an inexpensive choice for applications utilizing low speed and high loads. Benefits of cast iron include gall-resistance and high heat tolerance. They can also be run dry due to the presence of graphite that acts as a lubricant. Common applications include heavy duty equipment machinery, agriculture equipment, combines and more.
Wood bearings are tolerant of dirt and good for high shaft rotation; they are also resistant to wet conditions and are used when the equipment is fully submerged; such as in paddle boats and other aquatic machinery. Wood bearings are also resistant to acids, such as those that are found in animal manure.
This resistance leads to wood bearings being used in agricultural means, such as manure spreaders and other applications. Wood bearings are vacuum impregnated with oil or wax that leads to a low coefficient of friction and helps to seal the wood.Enter any valid input 3 side lengths, 2 sides and an angle or 2 angle and a 1 side and our calculator will do the rest. This is the acute triangle in Quadrant I, for more information on this topic, check out the law of sines ambiguous case.
This is the obtuse triangle in Quadrant II, for more information on this topic, check out the law of sines ambiguous case. Status: Calculator waiting for input. The most frequent reason for this is because you are rounding the sides and angles which can, at times, lead to results that seem inaccurate.
In these cases, in actualitythe calculator is really producing correct results. However, it is then rounding them for you- which leads to seemingly inaccurate results and possible error warnings.
To see if that is your problem, set the rounding to maximum accuracy. Triangle App Triangle Animated Gifs. Test Case. Round to. Auto Calculate. Triangle 1 This is the acute triangle in Quadrant I, for more information on this topic, check out the law of sines ambiguous case.
Sides Angles Side A. Side B. Side C. Triangle 2 This is the obtuse triangle in Quadrant II, for more information on this topic, check out the law of sines ambiguous case. Popular pages mathwarehouse. Surface area of a Cylinder. Unit Circle Game. Pascal's Triangle demonstration. Create, save share charts.Formula to Find Bearing or Heading angle between two points. How we can find bearing between the two points on earth, with the formula? Let us discuss all this points, followed with the example and experiment with the tool for calculating bearing provided in the post.
Bearing angle plays a im.
Introduction to Bearing and Distance Calculations
Bearing can be defined as direction or an angle, between the north-south line of earth or meridian and the line connecting the target and the reference point. While Heading is an angle or direction where you are currently navigating in. This means to reach a particular destination you need to adjust your heading direction with the bearing.
You must refer Haversine distance formula before going through this post. So if you are from GIS field or dealing with GIS applicationyou should know bearing and how to calculate bearing with formula. Let us look on formula and tool for bearing:. Bearing would be measured from North direction i. Lets us take an example to calculate bearing between the two different points with the formula:. Tool to find bearing angle between two lat lon points:.
You may find both the tool on separate page, with Google map working on it: It will be update in 2 days, please visit us again. I hope this article will definitely help you, to find the bearing or heading. You are free to share more data related to bearing or any thing that you uses to calculate bearing and how you use navigation with bearing. If you find anything difficulty to understand the bearing calculation, you may comment below, so that we will discuss further on finding bearing or heading angle.
Now we are on Youtube also. He is a Gold Medalist in M. Tech Spatial Information Technology and owns some famous Technology blogs and website Know more. Long diff varies with how far from equator toward the pole you are, in other words varies with latitude.The same way the captain of a ship needs to navigate in the proper direction, the angles between various points in space can outline different methods of determining position and motion.
With the geometry of the ocean before them, you can learn the ways scientists, engineers and other professionals use the angles between points in their navigation practices. The bearing is an angle measured clockwise from north, and it finds uses across geography for mapping out the Earth.
You can find this bearing angle in maps and compass measurements. To find the bearing angle from a certain angle, measure the clockwise degrees between the direction or vector and the object from the north line when the object is centered at the origin just as though the angle were the hands of a clock.The Maths Prof: Changing Subject of Formula EXAM QUESTIONS
The similarity between bearing and clock position has lead to informal uses of the position of a clock's hands for example, the angle between the hands that indicate it is as bearing angle. The standard angle is typically measured by placing the angle at the origin and, from the line facing east, increasing counter-clockwise. You can just draw out the angles if you need a simpler way of tackling problems in a bearings maths lesson. Bearing angles can be used for determining the angles of different shapes such as triangles or quadrilaterals.
Protractors and compasses come in handy for measuring the bearing. With a protractor, you can accurately measure angles when drawing maps, curves, circles, or other shapes. A bearings calculator might things easier if you find one, but understanding the underlying physics and mathematics will make things more clear. Bearings have application in a myriad of fields from compass bearings, the bearing a compass dictates magnetic bearings the bearing with respect to the north direction of the Earth's magnetic fieldand true bearing the bearing with respect to the Earth's north axis.
Because compasses and other instruments to measure the bearing angle are made of metal, they're affected by deviations in the Earth's magnetic field and metals that make up the Earth. Instead, these measurements are off by a small amount. Because the true bearing does not measure the Earth's magnetic field exactly, scientists and researchers across disciplines compare the true bearing to the Earth's magnetic north pole to determine how it differs and study the magnetic anomalies that result from it.
Geographers, geologists, and other scientists studying the Earth use bearing between the geographic north pole to determine the magnetic field across the planet and accurately create maps of the Earth. Researchers use these anomalies variations in Earth's magnetic field in studying the nature of geologic phenomena such as mid-ocean ridges, ocean crust and magma that flows through them, and even how they've changed throughout Earth's history.
This research field, known as paleomagnetisminvolves determining the Earth's historical magnetic field record through the study of magnetized rocks. Studying how these geologic formations came to be gives clues about the history of the Earth.
After studying physics and philosophy as an undergraduate at Indiana University-Bloomington, he worked as a scientist at the National Institutes of Health for two years.
He primarily performs research in and write about neuroscience and philosophy, however, his interests span ethics, policy, and other areas relevant to science. About the Author. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.The theoretical size of a load bearing beam required to support a particular weight is easy to calculate, but the choice of the actual beam depends on taking into account the factors of the particular situation. To address possible imperfections and weak spots in the wooden beams, it is common to install the required cross section by placing several smaller beams side by side.
Beams on inch centers will also reinforce each other. The theoretical calculation also usually assumes an even distribution of weight and that the ends of the beams are not only supported but held rigid. Make sure that this applies in the particular case or use oversized beams. Calculate the weight the beam must support. For a flat roof with snow loading, this is 25 lbs.
For rooms which are heavily frequented, it may be 50 lbs. Multiply the loading per square foot by the area in square feet of the surface which the beams will be supporting. Divide by the number of beams which will be installed to get the loading per beam.
Calculate the maximum bending moment for the wooden beams. The bending moment is the length of the span times the weight to be supported divided by 8. For a beam spanning a foot room and supporting a weight of lbs.
Online Triangle Calculator
Calculate the beam's section modulus by dividing the maximum bending moment by the allowable fiber stress for wooden beams. The latter is 1, pounds per square inch. Multiply the maximum bending moment of foot pounds by 12 to get 10, inch-pounds. Divide 10, inch-pounds by 1, pounds per square inch to get the section modulus required of 9.
Calculate the section modulus for the different beams which you could use. The formula for the section modulus is beam width times beam depth squared divided by 6. A two 2-by-6 standard beam has actual dimensions of 1.
A 2-by-8 beam would be sufficient. Two 2-by-4 beams together would not be enough. Standard 2-by beams on inch centers are used to span 15 feet. Step 1 Calculate the weight the beam must support. Step 2 Calculate the maximum bending moment for the wooden beams. Step 3 Calculate the beam's section modulus by dividing the maximum bending moment by the allowable fiber stress for wooden beams. Step 4 Calculate the section modulus for the different beams which you could use.
Bert Markgraf Bert Markgraf is a freelance writer with a strong science and engineering background. He started writing technical papers while working as an engineer in the s. More recently, after starting his own business in IT, he helped organize an online community for which he wrote and edited articles as managing editor, business and economics. Show Comments.Please provide 3 values including at least one side to the following 6 fields, and click the "Calculate" button.
A triangle is a polygon that has three vertices. A vertex is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet; in the case of a triangle, the three vertices are joined by three line segments called edges. A triangle is usually referred to by its vertices. Furthermore, triangles tend to be described based on the length of their sides, as well as their internal angles.
For example, a triangle in which all three sides have equal lengths is called an equilateral triangle while a triangle in which two sides have equal lengths is called isosceles.
When none of the sides of a triangle have equal lengths, it is referred to as scalene, as depicted below. Tick marks on an edge of a triangle are a common notation that reflects the length of the side, where the same number of ticks means equal length. Similar notation exists for the internal angles of a triangle, denoted by differing numbers of concentric arcs located at the triangle's vertices. As can be seen from the triangles above, the length and internal angles of a triangle are directly related, so it makes sense that an equilateral triangle has three equal internal angles, and three equal length sides.
Note that the triangle provided in the calculator is not shown to scale; while it looks equilateral and has angle markings that typically would be read as equalit is not necessarily equilateral and is simply a representation of a triangle. When actual values are entered, the calculator output will reflect what the shape of the input triangle should look like.
Triangles classified based on their internal angles fall into two categories: right or oblique. The longest edge of a right triangle, which is the edge opposite the right angle, is called the hypotenuse.
Any triangle that is not a right triangle is classified as an oblique triangle and can either be obtuse or acute. There are multiple different equations for calculating the area of a triangle, dependent on what information is known. Likely the most commonly known equation for calculating the area of a triangle involves its base, band height, h. The "base" refers to any side of the triangle where the height is represented by the length of the line segment drawn from the vertex opposite the base, to a point on the base that forms a perpendicular.
Given the length of two sides and the angle between them, the following formula can be used to determine the area of the triangle. Note that the variables used are in reference to the triangle shown in the calculator above.
Another method for calculating the area of a triangle uses Heron's formula.